New migrants from the BRIC Countries in Japan, UK and Australia workshop, at the 23rd Annual Conference of Japan-China Sociological Society (JCSS)
Time: 9:00am to 5:00pm, 4-5th June
Venue: R.102, B Building, Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan
Keynote speaker: Professor Athar Hussain
Chairs: Professor Lixing Chen
Panellists: Prof. Komai Hiroshi, Prof. Kazuhisa Nishihara, Prof. Lixing Chen and Prof. Tsuboi
Chair: Prof. Norihiro Nakamura, Ehime University
Convenors: Professor Lixing Chen and Dr Xiangqun Chang
After the kick-off meeting of the BRIC migrant project in Shenyang in 2009 and the 2nd meeting in London in 2010, the 3rd event takes place from 4 to 5th June 2011 in Japan. It was built into the 23rd annual conference of the Japan-China Sociological Society (JCSS). Professor Athar Hussain, the project Advisor, Director of Asia Research Centre, LSE, gave a keynote speech at the planetary session. The title is “Internal Population Migration in China - Magnitude, Pattern and Implications”. After presenting a comprehensive analytical account of the scale, composition and the pattern of rural-to-urban migration in China, Professor Hussian discussed issues arising out of the presence of a large population of migrants in cities with reference to housing and basic education. The speech was translated by Prof. Anandar Kumara, Deputy President of Suzuka International University. It was very well received and stimulated many interesting questions.
Following the keynote speech there was a panel session entitled ‘Globalization and Chinese Diaspora’. It was chaired by Professor Norihiro Nakamura, Ehime University. The Panellists each made presentations on the topics below:
• Professor Tsuboi, Yokohama City University on Chinese Students in Japan
• Professor Kazuhisa Nishihara, Nagoya University on Chinese Technical Trainees in Japan
• Prof. Lixing Chen, Kwansei Gakuin University on Returning Trend of Overseas Chinese in China
• Professor Hiroshi Komai, University of Tsukuba on Chinese Diasporas in the world
The above scholars’ presentations were very informative and stimulating.
A reception was held in the evening. Professor Athar Hussian gave a talk on China studies at Asia Research Centre, LSE. He introduced the history of China and Japan related studies and organizations at LSE. He distinguished China studies as area studies from those social scientific studies on China at LSE. At the end of his talk Professor Husain invited the Japanese scholars to disseminate their research at LSE. Dr Xiangqun Chang, Coordinator of China in Comparative Perspective Network (CCPN), continued her talk with an introduction of LSE’s innovation ‘China in comparative perspective’. She stressed it would be a new social scientific inter-disciplinary approach on studying China. She also demonstrated it with a few examples from some related work by Japanese colleagues who were at the reception, and expressed her willingness to make arrangements for the Japanese scholars if they give presentations at LSE.
A workshop on the BRIC migrant project was held in the morning on the 5th June at Room 203, B Building. The project advisors and key members of the research team attended the workshop. They are:
• Professor Athar Hussain, the project advisor, LSE
• Professor Hiroshi Komai, project advisor and key member, University of Tsukuba
• Professor Lixing Chen, the Project PI, Kwansei Gakuin University
• Dr Xiangqun Chang, Co-PI of the project, LSE
• Professor Anandar Kumara, key team member, Suzuka International University
• Professor Wei Wang, key team member, Kagawa University
Professor Lixing Chen chaired the workshop which discussed 4 issues:
• Sampling: random sampling is very difficult
• Survey: through the channels such as migrant communities, language schools, worship places and internet communities; 200 questionnaires to be sent to migrants who come from one of the BRIC countries
• Questionnaires: Dr Chang, Professor Kumara and Professor Shinsuke Otani, Kwansei Gakuin University, are responsible for revising and finalising the questionnaire
• Publication: Professor Chen and Professor Komai are responsible for drafting the table of contents; all the team members will identify their own chapters and are responsible for producing papers which are ready to be published.
Finally, the following schedules have been agreed:
• 30th June, 2011: finalising the drafts of both questionnaire and a table of contents
• 31st July, 2011: team members send back their feedback and comments on the questionnaire and a table of contents
• 30th Sep, 2011: finalising both questionnaire and a table of contents; write a publishing proposal to publishers
• 1st October 2011 - 31 March 2012: questionnaire survey
• 1st Ariel 2012 - 31st October: rewriting research papers
• 1st November – 31st December: comments and revise papers
• March 2013: end of project conference will be held at LSE
This paper has two aims. The first is to present a comprehensive analytical account of the scale, composition and the pattern of rural-to-urban migration in China. The second is to discuss issues arising out of the presence of a large population of migrants in cities with reference to housing and basic education.
Here migration refers to the voluntary movement of rural workers, who leave their home villages for urban localities to seek employment in industry and services.
China’s migrant population is huge, even relative to its massive total population. In recent years between a quarter to a third of the rural labour force has been involved in migration. To a degree this is due to the hukou system that impedes the absorption of migrants; as a result individuals continue to be classified as a “migrant” for much longer than in other countries.
Around 80% of migrants are individuals with their families staying behind in the countryside. Most of these, if not all, are temporary migrants who return back.
The composition of migrants in terms of gender, age and education is very different from that of the rural labour force or population. Some of the salient issues concerning migrants are associated with this divergence.
A large majority of migrant workers are male. The median female migrant is young, just over 22 years of age. She normally enters the labour force at 15 upon finishing the lower middle school, or after 9 years of basic education. She leaves to work in a city soon after her 20th birthday. Her sojourn as a migrant worker ends a few years later upon marriage. The median male migrant worker is 27.7 years old, almost 6 years older than his female counterpart. It is likely he also finished education after the middle school but with some possibility of a period in the higher-middle school stream. He leaves to work in a city a few years later than his female counterpart. Unlike with her, marriage does not mark a major break in his stint as a migrant worker.
A notable feature is that the distribution of migrants by destination is very different from the distribution of migrants by origin. The former is heavily weighted towards the Coastal Region, which receives 70% of migrants. In contrast, the latter is more evenly spread with each region accounting for a significant share. The implication is that the impact of migration on recipient localities, and issues associated with the presence of a large migrant population such as housing, schooling, and health care, are of serious concern in a few localities rather than being of equal concern in all towns and cities.
Migration raises household income in rural areas but it also creates split households, with one or more family members migrating and leaving behind a part of the family. The problems include the schooling of left-behind children and the care of the elderly.
Click HERE to download the full speech
Questions from the audience
Panellists: Professor Tsuboi, Professor Kazuhisa Nishihara, Professor Hiroshi Komai and Professor Lixing Chen (from lefty to right)
Professor Lixing Chen chaired the workshop on the BRIC migrant project
The attendees of the workshop on the BRIC migrant project
Click HERE to Chinese page
地点: 102室, B 大楼, 日本关西学院大学
主题讲者: Athar Hussain 教授
分组讲者: Komai Hiroshi 教授, 西原Kazuhisa教授, 陈立行教授及Tsuboi 教授
在2009年沈阳的金砖国移民项目准备会议及2010年伦敦的第二次会议后, 第三次活动在2011年6月4至5日在日本举行。这是被建构在第23届日本中国社会学协会 (JCSS) 年会中。项目顾问伦敦经济学院亚洲研究中心的 Athar Hussain 教授在开始部分给了一个主题演讲，题目是“中国的内部人口移动 - 规模, 方式和意义”。 在发表了一个关于在中国从农村到城市移民的规模，组成和方式的全面分析报告后, Hussian教授讨论了在城市中存在大量移民人口所产生的与房屋和基本教育相关的议题。演讲被Suzuka国际大学副校长Anandar Kumara教授所翻译。. 这很被接受及刺激了很多有趣的问题。
主题演讲后有一个小组讨论名为‘全球化与华人社区’. 这是由愛媛大学中村Norihiro教授所主持的。 小组成员对下面的题目做了发表:
• Tsuboi 教授, 横浜市大学关于在日本的中国学生
• 西原Kazuhisa教授, 名古屋大学关于在日本的中国技术培训者
• 陈立行教授, 关西学院大学关于中国的海外华人的回归潮流。
• Hiroshi Komai 教授, 筑波大学关于世界上的华人社区
招待会在晚上举行。Athar Hussian 教授给了一个关于伦敦经济学院亚州研究中心中国研究的演讲。他介绍了伦敦经济学院与中国和日本历史相关的课程和组织。他区分了作为区域研究的中国研究与伦敦经济学院对中国的社会科学研究。在他的演讲结束后Husain教授邀请日本学者在伦敦经济学院传播他们的研究。中国比较研究网(CCPN)的召集人常向群博士以介绍伦敦经济学院的创新“中国比较研究角度”继续她的谈话。她强调它作为研究中国的社会科学跨学科方法。她还展示了在招待会的日本同事的一些相关工作的几个例子，并表示她愿意安排日本学者在伦敦经济学院做发表。
6月5日早上在B楼203号房举行了一个有关金砖国移民项目的工作坊。 研究团队的项目顾问及主要成员出席了工作坊。 他们是:
• Athar Hussain教授, 项目顾问, 伦敦经济学院
• Hiroshi Komai教授, 项目顾问及主要成员, 筑波大学
• 陈立行教授, 项目PI, 关西学院大学
• 常向群博士, 项目共同PI, 伦敦经济学院
• Anandar Kumara 教授, 主要团队成员，铃鹿国际大学
• Wei Wang 教授, 主要团队成员, 香川大学
• 抽样：随机抽样是很困难的, 但将会做出一定的理据。
• 调查：通过像移民社区, 语言学校, 宗教场所和互联网社区的渠道; 200份调查问卷将会被发送给其中一个金砖国的移民
• 问卷: 常博士, 关西学院大学Kumara教授和Shinsuke Otani教授负责修改和总结问卷
• 出版: 陈教授和Komai教授负责起草内容表; 所有团队成员将确定自己的篇章及负责写已经准备好出版的文章。
• 2011年6月30日: 敲定问卷的草稿和目录表
• 20117月31日: 团队成员寄回他们对问卷的反馈和意见及目录表
• 2011年9月30日: 敲定问卷及一个内容表;编写一份出版建议给出版商
• 2011年10月1日 - 2012年3月31日: 问卷调查
• 2012年4月1日 - 10月31日: 重写研究文章
• 11月1日 – 12月31日: 评论和修改文章
• 2013年3月: 项目总结会议将会在LSE举行
中国的流动人口相对于其庞大的人口总量是巨大的。 近年来有四分之一到三分之一的农村劳动力已经参与迁移。在一定程度上这是由于户口制度阻碍了移民的吸收; 结果个人比其他国家继续被归类为“移民”更长的时间。
农民工大部分是男性。女移民平均年青, 只是超过22岁。她15岁完成初中, 或在9年基础教育后进入劳动力。她在20岁生日后不久去城市工作。她作为农民工的生涯在几年后结婚的时候结束。男性农民工平均年龄27.7岁, 差不多比他的女性同行大6岁。他们也多在初中结束教育但也有可能在高中读一段时间。他比他的女性同行晚几年到城市工作。与她们不同, 结婚不会中断他的农民工生涯。
一个显着的特点是移民的目的地分布与移民的原籍分布非常不同。前者的比重倾向于緣海地区, 占70%的移民。与此相反, 后者则是更均匀地分布在每个区域, 占一个显著份额。其含义是移民对当地的影响, 及与大量流动人口存在相关的问题, 如住房, 教育和医疗, 在一些地方是严重的问题, 而不是在所有乡镇和城市都有同等的关注。
小组讨论者: Tsuboi教授, Kazuhisa Nishihara教授, Hiroshi Komai教授和陈立行教授 (从坐到右)
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